Fujian Tulou Earth Dwellings | Fujian Tulou Hakka Tribe | Fujian Tulou Earth Buildings | Fujian Tulou China | Fujian Tulou Hakka Tribe History | Fujian Tulou Architecture | Fujian Tulou UNESCO Site
The Fujian Hakka Earth Buildings are a layout of construction wherein humans belonging to the equal extended family stay together, with the delivered characteristic of defense.
Yongding County and Nanjing County in Fujian Province have the best attention of Fujian Hakka Earth Buildings, which also can be visible in Pinghe, Zhangpu, Yunxiao, Hua’an, Zhao’an, and different areas withinside the Minnan area (the southern part of Fujian province).
Fujian Tulou had been constructed withinside the Song and Yuan Dynasties and feature records of extra than 1,000 years. This fashion of construction turned into its heyday withinside the overdue Ming Dynasty, the early Qing Dynasty, and the technology of the Republic of China, and has been preserved till now. The homes are over two-storied tall, which include thick partitions built of rammed-earth among outer panels. The predominant structure substances had been earth, wood, stones, and bamboo. It turned into a combination of clay and sandy soil in a selected proportion.
In 1995, because the consultant of China’s southern and northerly round structure, architectural fashions of Fujian Hakka Earth Building and Temple of Heaven had been displayed withinside the World Architecture Exhibition of America in Los Angeles. It prompted a sensation and turned into commemorated as “the Oriental Pearl of Architecture”. In 2008, the Fujian Hakka Earth Building turned into formally delivered to the World Heritage List
Have you Seen The Disney Movie Trailer ” Mulan”, Well it shows the Culture of Hakka’s? But People from Fujian say that they noticed a few inconsistencies in the Movie. Few Argue that it was made as a Funny Film, But history says the other way.
Keeping the debatable topics aside, Tulou is a Circular or Square shaped Constructed Castles that is almost 50 Ft High made with the Five elements like Mud, Wood, Clay, Stones, and Fire. They may be divided into categories – rectangular homes and round homes. Originally, the earth homes have been rectangular.
However, as a rectangular earth construction has 4 sides, the 4 corners of the construction are tremendously dark, ensuing in variations in airflow and lighting. Thus, the Hakka human beings evolved round earth homes that have higher airflow and lighting. The round earth homes are the maximum alluring many of the present earth homes. The neighborhood human beings name it Yuanlou or Yuanzha
These are built around the 1200s, The Hakka people are nomads, Their tribe didn’t use to stay at one Place, They Faced persecutions from Jurchens and Later Mongols in the 13th Century. So Later they moved to Fujian Province in China and built Tulous with great defensive elements.
There are almost 46 Sites where Tulou’s are constructed. And there are more than 3700 Tulou’s in China.
These Tulous are usually Circle shaped and some are square-shaped. First, the entrance is decided by the Fengshui master for luck, and later a circle is drawn around with rope. The Basement of the wall is completely covered and made with Stones and on top of it, The Building is raised up to 50 ft and the construction material like Mud and Clay will be used for It.
The Ground Floor will be of Kitchen and Dining Area, The First Floor will be of Grain Storage and the second floor will be Bedrooms for Families.
The final Layer consists of an Ancestral hall , Where ceremonies and festivals will be celebrated.
People still live in Tulou’s.
Marvel of Architecture
This pioneering prototype for less expensive housing in China is stimulated via way of means of the conventional Tulou, the multi-family, fortress-like earth residence discovered withinside the rural regions of Fujian province.
The city Tulou includes an outer round block with a square container inside this is linked to the outer ring via way of means of bridges and a courtyard. Both the round and square blocks include small rental units; the areas in among are for movement and network use. The decrease flooring includes stores and different network facilities.
Rents are low and residences aren’t to be had to vehicle owners, including to the homogeneity of the network, a lot of whom are migrant workers. The self-contained round shape stands in sharp comparison to the standard high-upward push blocks around it. The complete shape is wrapped in a concrete display screen with timber inserts that color the balconies, giving every unit a secondary dwelling space. The function of the residences additionally permits for desirable mild and ventilation.
Resulting from massive studies into the unique earth homes in addition to the social dynamics of cutting-edge urbanization traits in China, the Tulou Collective Housing is a completely unique test in low-profit housing and the transformation of historic historical past to shape present-day dwelling environments.
The partitions of Fujian Hakka Earth Buildings are thicker on the lowest and thinner on the top, with the thickest component being as much as 1.5 meters. When constructing the wall, the Hakkas dug a substantial, deep trench on the footing of the wall, and crammed it with massive rocks to consolidate the foundation. Then stones and mortar have been used to construct the wall base, accompanied via way of means of ramming earth sandwiched among panels to create the wall.
The key step is to feature glutinous rice and brown sugar to boom the viscosity of the rammed earth. When ramming, the Hakkas placed branches of cedarwood and bamboo strips into the center of the earth constructing as “wall bones” to enhance its tension. After being time and again consolidated, the built earth wall changed into as robust as strengthened concrete.
Finally, the floor of the wall changed into plastered with lime that is weatherproof and has anti-erosion properties. Thus, it’s miles extraordinarily solid, with tremendous wind resistance and anti-seismic ability.
Culture of Hakka Tribe
Fujian Hakka humans take satisfaction of their Fujian Hakka Earth Buildings, which might be taken into consideration to be the treasure of Fujian residences. Reflecting the humanity factor, Fujian Hakka Earth Buildings display the aggregate of heaven, earth, and humanity.
A layout in which dozens of families and loads of humans stay collectively withinside the one construction displays the Hakka humans’ own circle of relatives culture of humans of the identical extended family dwelling collectively in harmony. Therefore, the records of an earth construction are likewise the records of the extended family.
Beyond their architectural prowess, the Fujian Tulou carry immense cultural significance. These buildings are not just physical structures; they embody the values of unity, family ties, and communal living that have been integral to the Hakka way of life. The tulou housed entire clans, fostering a sense of belonging and mutual support among the inhabitants.
The communal aspects of the tulou are evident in their functional design. Each building had spaces for worship, cooking, and storage, emphasizing the importance of shared resources and responsibilities. This collective approach to living extended to social interactions, decision-making, and the preservation of traditions.
UNESCO Heritage Status and Preservation Efforts
This Place is Granted UNESCO World Heritage Site Status in 2008, recognizing their outstanding universal value and contribution to human heritage. This designation has spurred increased attention to the preservation of these architectural treasures.
Preservation efforts encompass both physical restoration and cultural revitalization. Restoration projects focus on maintaining the structural integrity of the tulou while ensuring their historical authenticity. Additionally, educational programs and cultural initiatives seek to pass down the knowledge and significance of the tulou to younger generations.
Touristic Exploration and Cultural Exchange
The Fujian Tulou have garnered international acclaim, attracting visitors from around the world who seek to experience the unique charm of these remarkable structures. Tourists can explore the interiors of the tulou, interact with the local communities, and immerse themselves in the history and culture of the Hakka people. These encounters offer a glimpse into a way of life that is deeply rooted in tradition and shaped by the surrounding natural landscapes.
Legacy and Inspirations
The Fujian Tulou continue to inspire architects, urban planners, and enthusiasts alike. Their sustainable design, which seamlessly integrates with the environment and caters to the needs of a community, holds valuable lessons for modern construction practices. Additionally, the tulou serve as a reminder of the importance of preserving cultural heritage in the face of rapid urbanization and globalization.