Nalanda Mahavihara Archeological Site, Bihar, History and UPSC Notes
Nalanda Mahavihara Archeological Site| Nalanda Mahavihara Archeological Site History | Nalanda Mahavihara Archeological Site Bihar | Nalanda Mahavihara Archeological Site UPSC | Nalanda Mahavihara Archeological Site University | Nalanda Mahavihara Archeological Site UNESCO
Nalanda is located in Bihar and is 95 km away from the city of Patna, The Site is popularly known for Ancient Nalanda University, Where they had many educational institutions like Libraries, Study Rooms and it attracted scholars from many South East Asian Countries like Korea, Japan, China about 1500 Years ago .
Also many inscriptions which were written in Chinese and Korean are also Found here, This University was built about approximately 2500 years old according to some historians and this places is given UNESCO World Heritage Site Status.
Nalanda, a massive Buddhist monastery, now in ruins, changed into one of the maxima publicly recounted Mahaviharas of historical India positioned in the historical Magadha kingdom (contemporary-day Bihar).
It remained a mastering center from the seventh century BCE via c. 1200 CE and is many a time classified as one of the early universities of India alongside different establishments like ‘Vikramashila’ and ‘Taxila’. The patronage of the Gupta Empire noticed this Mahavihara prosper at some point of the fifth and sixth century as additionally at some point of the reign of emperor Harsha of Kannauj.
However tantric tendencies of Buddhism at some point of the Pala rule noticed an eventual decline of Nalanda. Students from locations like China, Central Asia, Korea, and Tibet studied on this super vihara that taught Mahayana, Hinayana, Sanskrit grammar, Vedas, and Samkhya amongst others.
Imminent pilgrim priests like Hiuen Tsang and I-tsing from East Asia visited this region withinside the seventh century. Recognized with the aid of using UNESCO as a World Heritage Site, Nalanda now no longer best boasts of being one of the maximum respected Buddhist tourism sites in India however additionally keeps attracting interest from students, historians, and archaeologists.
The Univerisity of Nalanda was built around 400AD by King Kumaragupta 1, This University flourished under the Gupta empire, When the Gupta empire adopted Buddhism, They wanted to build something which would benefit the World, So Kumaragupta decided to build a knowledge hub in the form of University.
Nalanda becomes initially a thriving village near Magadha’s capital Rajagriha (currently Rajgir) placed beside a high exchange route. According to sources, Gautam Buddha gave away lectures in a nearby mango grove referred to as Pavarika and Jain Tirthankara, Mahavira additionally stayed at Nalanda for approximately fourteen wet seasons hence validating the life of the vicinity to as early because the 5th–sixth century BCE.
The Tibetian Lama Taranatha of the seventeenth century noted that a massive temple becomes built on the Site of chaitya of Shatiputra at Nalanda via way of means of the superb Indian emperor of the Maurya Dynasty, Ashoka who later embraced Buddhism.
The University Started functioning from 400AD and ran successfully till 800 years until when it was ransacked by Bhaktiyar Khilki, An Islamic King from Turkey who Invaded India and killed many Buddhist Monks.
The Architecture of Nalanda University is very Unique, It was built with Bricks of very large size, Also in Length and Width, Many Stupas were built, and also Monastries for Monks, Libraries, Halls with High Walls were built. There used to be many more buildings.
But many were destroyed due to later invasions by other country kings, Now the present-day remains are only about 1 Km whereas, Earlier the Area used to be 10 Km as said by the ASI. It is spread around 30 acres.
King’s rule and Fall
Kumaragupta 1 from (415-455 AD) ruled this place followed by his successors Buddhagupta and Bramaditya by building many monasteries and statues of Buddha from the 5th Century to the 8th Century, From 8th Century The Palas Empire took over this place and expanded the Empire.
With the upward push of Tantric practices in Buddhism throughout the Pala rule that blanketed mystery magic and rituals following the slow decline of the Pala dynasty publish the eleventh century complemented with a surge of Hindu philosophies throughout the subcontinent noticed an eventual decline of Buddhism in India main to say no of Nalanda.
Although nonetheless surviving, Nalanda probably confronted a massive blow in c. 1200 CE while it became plundered and destroyed with the aid of using a navy headed with the aid of using Bakhtiyar Khilji, a Turkish army widespread of the Muslim Mamluk Dynasty.
According to a few sources, it attempted to characteristic briefly however became regularly abandoned and most effective got here to note while the ‘Archaeological Survey of India’ (ASI) surveyed the site and performed preliminary excavation works withinside the nineteenth century. Excavation works of ASI in 1915 added to the mild lifestyles of 6 brick temples and eleven monasteries. Several antiques together with inscriptions, coins, sculptures, and seals had been excavated from the site which now unearths area withinside the Nalanda Archaeological Museum
This Place is a UNESCO World Heritage Site, So it has all the advantages of attracting tourists from World Wide, There are Many Monuments in Nalanda Mahavihara to Visit, Like Memorials, Arts and Culture Museum, and Ruin Sites. Nalanda is Completely a Buddhist Tourism Spot.
Nalanda Archeological Museum
This Museum was opened in 1917, During British India, They display artifacts of ancient Buddhist antiques, Unearthened at Nalanda, This is now currently maintained by the Archeological Survey of India.
Xuanzang Memorial Hall
Xuanzang is a Buddhist Monk and was a follower of Buddha, This Memorial Hall is dedicated to him, This is an Indian and Chinese Undertaking as an honor to Monk.
Nalanda Multimedia Museum
Nalanda Museum Showcases the History of Nalanda in 3-D.
This University is Renovated and was established in 1951 by the First President of India, Rajendra Prasad, To Revive ancient Buddist Culture and Education. It became a Deemed to be University in 2006.
Nalanda Mahavihara was granted World Heritage Site Status in 2016, Based on the Cultural and Heritage of Buddhist Culture.
Best Season To Visit
Monsoon and Winter are the best seasons to visit.
Entry Ticket for Indians is 15 Rs and For Foreigners ins 200, Separate charges for Video and Photo. Timings are from 6 AM TO 5:30 PM.
Book here: PAYUMONEY
Patna is the Capital City and just 80kms to Nalanda Mahavihara, You’ll have Train and Bus Facilities to Patna, From there Cabs, Buses, and Tourism Buses are available to Nalanda Mahavihara.